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Investment Treaty Arbitration

Last verified on Monday 4th May 2020

Turkey

    Overview of investment treaty programme

  1. 1.

    What are the key features of the investment treaties to which this country is a party?

    1. BIT Contracting Party or MIT1

      Substantive protections

      Procedural rights

      Fair and equitable treatment (FET)2

      Expropriation

      Protection
      and security

      Most-favoured-nation (MFN)

      Umbrella clause

      Cooling-off period3

      Local courts4

      Arbitration

      Afghanistan (19 July 2005)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      Albania (26 December 1996)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Algeria (signed on 3 June 1998, not in force)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Argentina (1 May 1995)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes5

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Australia (29 June 2009)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Austria (1 January 1992)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      1 year6

      Yes

      Yes

      Azerbaijan (13 May 2013)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Bahrain (15 November 2014)

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      Bangladesh (21 June 1990, replaced by Bangladesh 2019 BIT)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      1 year7

      No

      Yes

      Bangladesh (20 May 2019)8

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Belarus (20 February 1997)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Belarus (signed on 14 February 2018, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes9

      Benin (signed on 11 December 2013, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      BLEU (4 May 1990)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      1 year10

      Yes

      Yes

      Bosnia and Herzegovina (29 January 2002)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Bulgaria (18 September 1997)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      Burkina Faso11 (signed on 11 April 2019, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Burundi (signed on 14 June 2017, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Cambodia (signed on 21 October 2018, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Cameroon (signed on 24 April 2012, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Chad (signed on 26 December 2017, not in force, text not publicly available)

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      Chile (signed on 21 August 1998, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      3 months

      Yes

      Yes

      China (20 August 1994)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      1 year12

      Yes

      Yes

      China13 (signed on 29 July 2015, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Colombia (signed on 28 July 2014, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months14

      Yes

      Yes

      Côte d'Ivoire (signed on 29 February 2016, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Croatia (21 April 1998) (as amended with an additional protocol dated 18 February 2009 and entered into force on 17 July 2013)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Cuba (23 October 1999)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Czech Republic (18 March 2012)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Denmark (1 August 1992)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      1 year15

      Yes

      Yes

      Djibouti (signed on 25 September 2013, not in force)16

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      ECO Investment Agreement (signed on 17 July 2005, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) (4 July 2001)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      3 months

      Yes

      Yes17

      Egypt (31 July 2002)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Estonia (29 April 1999)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Ethiopia (10 March 2005)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Finland (23 April 1995)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      France (3 August 2009)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Gabon (signed on 18 July 2012, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Gambia (signed on 12 March 2013, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Georgia (28 July 1995)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Georgia18 (signed on 19 July 2016, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Germany (5 December 1965)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      No

      No

      Ghana (signed on 1 March 2016, not in force)19

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Greece (24 November 2001)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      Guatemala20 (19 October 2017)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Guinea (29 August 2019)21

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Hungary (22 February 1995)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      India (18 October 2007)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Iran (13 April 2005)

      Yes22

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Israel (27 August 1998)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      3 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Italy (2 March 2004)

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Japan (12 March 1993)

      No

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      No

      Yes

      No23

      Jordan (23 January 2006)

      No

      Yes

      No24

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Jordan (signed on 27 March 2016, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Kazakhstan (10 August 1995)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Kenya (signed on 8 April 2014, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Korea25 (4 June 1994)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      1 year26

      Yes

      Yes

      Kosovo (15 October 2015)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Kuwait (8 May 2013)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Kyrgyzstan (31 October 1996)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Kyrgyzstan (signed on 9 April 2018, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Latvia (3 March 1999)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Lebanon (4 January 2006)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Libya (22 April 2011)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      90 days

      Yes

      Yes

      Lithuania (7 July 1997)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Lithuania (signed on 28 August 2018, not in force, text not publicly available)

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      Macedonia (27 October 1997)

      No

      Yes

      No27

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Malaysia (9 September 2000)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Mali (signed on 2 March 2018, not in force)28

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Malta (14 July 2004)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      Mauritania (signed on 28 February 2018, not in force, text not publicly available)

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      Mauritius (30 May 2016)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No29

      Yes

      Mexico(17 December 2017)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Moldova (16 May 1997)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Moldova (signed on 16 December 2016, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Mongolia (22 May 2000)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Montenegro (signed on 14 March 2012, not in force)30

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Morocco (31 May 2004)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Mozambique (signed on 24 January 2017, not in force, text not publicly available)

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      Netherlands (1 November 1989)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      1 year31

      Yes

      Yes

      Nigeria (signed on 2 February 2011, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Nigeria (signed on 8 October 1996, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) Investment Agreement (ratified by Turkey on 9 February 1991)

      No

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Oman (15 March 2010)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Pakistan (3 September 1997)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Pakistan (signed on 22 May 2012, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Philippines (17 February 2006)

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      3 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Poland (19 August 1994)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      12 months

      No

      No32

      Portugal (19 January 2004)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Qatar (12 February 2008)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Romania (8 July 2010)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      Russia (17 May 2000)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Rwanda (signed on 3 November 2016, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Saudi Arabia (5 February 2010)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Senegal (17 July 2012)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Serbia (10 November 2003)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Serbia (signed on 30 January 2018, not in force, text not publicly available)

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      Singapore33 (27 March 2010, replaced by Singapore FTA)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Slovakia (11 December 2013)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      Slovenia (19 June 2006)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      3 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Somalia (signed on 3 June 2016, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      South Africa (signed on 23 June 2000, not in force)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      Spain (3 March 1998)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      State of Palestine (signed on 5 September 2018, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Sudan (signed on 19 December 1999, not in force)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Sudan (signed on 30 April 2014, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Sweden (8 October 1998)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months34

      Yes

      Yes

      Switzerland (21 February 1990)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      12 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Syrian Arab Republic (3 January 2006)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Tajikistan (24 July 1998)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Tanzania (3 January 2017)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Thailand (21 July 2010)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Tunisia (28 April 1994)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      1 year35

      Yes

      Yes

      Tunisia (signed on 27 December 2017, not in force, text not publicly available)

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      Turkmenistan (13 March 1997)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Ukraine (21 May 1998)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Ukraine36 (signed on 9 October 2017, not in force)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      United Arab Emirates (24 July 2011)

      No

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      United Kingdom (22 October 1996)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      1 year

      Yes

      Yes37

      United States of America (18 May 1990)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      1 year38

      Yes

      Yes

      Uzbekistan (18 May 1995)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Uzbekistan (signed on 25 October 2017, not in force)39

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Vietnam (19 June 2017)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Yemen (31 March 2011)

      No

      Yes

      No

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      Zambia (signed on 28 July 2018, not in force)40

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      No

      Yes

      FTAs41

      Substantive protections

      Procedural rights

      Fair and equitable treatment (FET)

      Expropriation

      Protection
      and security

      Most-favoured-nation (MFN)

      Umbrella clause

      Cooling-off period

      Local courts

      Arbitration

      Korea (Investment chapter’s entry into force, 1 August 2018)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes

      Lebanon (signed on 24 November 2010, not in force, text not publicly available)

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      Singapore (1 October 2017)

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

      No

      6 months

      Yes

      Yes42

      Sudan (signed on 27 December 2017, not in force, text not publicly available)

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

      N/A

    Qualifying criteria - any unique or distinguishing features?

  2. 2.

    Definition of "investor"

    What are the distinguishing features of the definition of “investor” in this country’s investment treaties?

    1. Issue

      Distinguishing features in relation to the definition of ‘investor’

      Broad definition

      Generally the standard formulation of the investor reflects the relevant provision in Turkey’s Model BITs covering both natural persons and legal persons. The 2009 Model BIT of Turkey, differently from 2000 Model BIT, requires for a legal person or natural person to have made an investment in the territory of a contracting party in order for such person to fall within the investor definition. Treaties executed after 2011 generally follow 2009 Model BIT’s formulation (eg, Benin, Cameroon).

      Natural persons

      In Model BITs of Turkey (2000 and 2009): natural person is defined as ‘natural persons deriving their status as nationals of either Party (a contracting party in Model BIT 2009) (according to its applicable law in Model BIT 2000). Some treaties, instead of providing ‘natural persons’ wording or any other general wording or definition, specifically refer to investor’s nationality or residency, such as ‘citizens of Turkey’ or ‘permanent residents of Australia’ (Australia), ‘Turkey national’, ‘Cuban citizen’ (Cuba), ‘physical persons’ (Denmark). The ECT defines ‘natural person investor’ as (i) ‘having citizenship’, (ii) ‘having nationality’, or (iii) ‘who is permanently residing in that contracting party’. Belarus (2018) BIT exceptionally provides a detailed explanation for a natural person who possesses a ‘dual nationality’. Accordingly, such person shall be deemed to possess exclusively the nationality of the state of his/her ‘dominant and effective nationality’.

      Legal persons

      2000 Model BIT defines legal persons as ‘corporations, firms or business associations incorporated or constituted under the law in force of either of the parties and having their headquarters in the territory of that party’, and Turkey’s treaties executed before 2011 generally follow this definition (eg, Croatia, Denmark), although there are certain exceptions requiring the investor to have business activities (eg, India) or commercial and/or investment activities (eg, Malaysia), or to have made an investment (eg, Morocco) in the host state.

      Turkey’s BITs which are executed after 2011 generally follow the legal person investor definition provided in 2009 Model BIT; however, there are variations from 2009 Model BIT’s formulation. Legal persons are defined as ‘corporations, firms, business partnerships incorporated or constituted under the law in force of a contracting party and having their registered offices together with substantial business activities in the territory of that contracting party’ in Model 2009 BIT, however, in some treaties, legal person definitions include ‘privately or governmentally owned or controlled legal entities (eg Benin, Kuwait, UAE), legal entities with the exception of non-profit organizations (eg, Kenya, Bosnia and Herzegovina), any juridical person incorporated or constituted (eg, Estonia) or a company or other organization (the ECT) wordings. Some treaties also require investment intention in the definition as ‘provided that they invested or intending to invest’ (Albania). Some others require the legal person to ‘have effective business activities’ (eg, Chile). Also, a few BITs provide that legal person investor may also be a legal person having its ‘seat [….] in a third country with predominant interest of an investor of other contracting party’ (eg, Finland, Sweden). Finland BIT also provides that purely contractual relations alone do not constitute a predominant interest.

      A few other BITs, while requiring the investment to have been made in the host state, also seek for this investment to be made in accordance with the host state’s legislation (eg, Romania (2010)) or legal person to be competent to make investments as per host state’s legislation (eg, Russia).

      There are other variations from Turkey’s Model BITs. As an example, Lebanon BIT includes holding and offshore companies into the investor definition, while Malta BIT specifically excludes branch, liaison and representative offices from the investor definition.

      Permanent residents

      Under some of Turkey’s treaties (eg, Australia, the ECT) persons who are permanently residing in the relevant country are also included in the investor definition, although subject to certain exceptions. Argentina BIT denies to provide protection to nationals of a contracting party in the event that they had a permanent residency in the host state for more than 2 years at the time of making the investment in the host state unless they prove that the capital for the investment has been brought from abroad.

      Denial of benefits

      Few of Turkey’s treaties (eg, Australia, Azerbaijan, Gabon, Gambia, Pakistan (2012), Rwanda) allow the parties to deny to provide benefits set forth in the relevant treaty under certain circumstances. A party may deny to provide benefits under the treaty if the investor of the other party has ‘no substantial business activities in the territory [of such Party]’ (eg, Gabon, Gambia, Pakistan (2012), Rwanda) or is ‘legal person of a Party [that] is owned or controlled by a citizen or a legal person of any third country’ (Australia, Azerbaijan, US). In that case the relevant party needs to notify the other party for the denial of benefits (eg, Gabon, Gambia, Pakistan (2012), Rwanda).

  3. 3.

    Definition of "investment"

    What are the distinguishing features of the definition of "investment" in this country’s investment treaties?

    1. Issue

      Distinguishing features in relation to the concept of ‘investment’

      Broad definition

      Investment definitions in Turkey’s BITs are generally broad, asset based, and mostly include ‘every kind of/all type of assets including but not exclusively/limited to’ wording by listing different asset types as examples. Recent treaties of Turkey, however, tend to define investment more narrowly and tend to specify what is and what is not an investment (eg, Mexico, Uzbekistan (2017)).

      Direct or indirect investment

      Although most of the treaties generally refer to investments without specifying whether they are direct or indirect investments, some treaties emphasize that they cover direct investments (eg, Spain, Qatar, Azerbaijan, South Africa, Tajikistan, Denmark).

      Control of assets

      Some of Turkey’s BITs extend the investment definitions to the assets controlled by the investors (eg, Bangladesh (1990), Sweden, Finland and US). In some of these BITs, indirect control is specifically mentioned (eg, Singapore FTA, Finland, Sweden), while in some others, the control is not specified as being direct or indirect (eg, Benin).

      Control or ownership through an affiliate or a subsidiary is also referred in some of these treaties. As an example; Singapore FTA and Jordan (2016) BIT refer to assets owned or controlled by an investor, while Netherlands, Finland, Bangladesh (1990), Sweden and US BITs apply to investments owned or controlled by the investor through subsidiaries or affiliates, wherever located.

      Alteration of form of the assets

      A number of Turkey’s BITs provide that any alteration of (or change in) the form in which the assets are invested (and reinvested) shall not affect their qualification as investments (eg, Australia, China (1994), South Africa). Some BITs require that such alteration should be in line with or subject to the laws of the host state (eg, Israel, Saudi Arabia), and some of them provide certain other requirements, such as alteration being in line with investment approval granted for original investment (eg, Malaysia) or being comprised within the investment definition provided in the treaty. In some others, it is provided that extensions, alterations or changes in an investment made according to law and regulations will be considered as a new investment (eg, Morocco).

      Compliance with the local laws

      A number of treaties specify that the investment must be made in accordance with the laws of the host state (eg, Greece, Israel, Libya).

      Commencement of treaty protection

      A vast number of treaties specify that the treaty protects investments made both before or after the entry into force of the treaty (eg, Qatar, Oman, BLEU). Some treaties specifically provide that they will be applicable to investments made or acquired after the treaty’s entry into force (eg, Bosnia and Herzegovina). Some treaties cover investments made after a specific date (eg, Bulgaria).

      Minimum shareholding threshold

      In the recent BITs, especially in the treaties signed after 2011 (most of them are not in force yet), there is a trend to limit coverage as to investments in the nature of acquisition of shares or voting power, through stock exchanges, with a certain equity percentage, which is mostly foreseen as 10 percent (eg, Azerbaijan, Kuwait, Bangladesh (2019), Libya, Pakistan (2012)).

      Business activity related investment

      Most of the recent BITs signed after 2011 (most of them are not in force yet) provide that an asset should be connected to business activities and acquired for the purpose of establishing lasting economic relations in the territory of a contracting party in order to be considered as an investment (eg, Azerbaijan and Colombia). Also, Mexico and China (2015) BITs require that asset should be connected to business activities, and Poland BIT refers to ‘assets connected with economic activities’.

      Certain characteristics (similar to Salini test)

      Some of the recent BITs of Turkey require an asset to carry certain characteristics in order to fall within the investment definition, such as expectation of (steady) gain and profit, commitment of capital or other resources, assumption of risk, significance for the development of the host state. For example, Colombia, Georgia (2016) BITs, and Korea and Singapore FTAs seek for most or at least some of these characteristics.

      Exclusion of certain assets

      Under certain new treaties of Turkey all or certain loan agreements (eg, Uzbekistan (2017), Ghana), claim to money arising from certain type of commercial contracts (eg, Ghana) (although subject to different conditions in different treaties), certain types of debts (eg, Mexico) or public debt operations (eg, Colombia and Ghana) are excluded from the investment definition.

      Admission/approval of an investment

      Some treaties of Turkey require the investment to be admitted by the host state subject to its laws and investment policies in order to benefit from treaty protections (eg, Australia, Chile).

    Substantive protections - any unique or distinguishing features?

  4. 4.

    Fair and equitable treatment

    What are the distinguishing features of the fair and equitable treatment standard in this country’s investment treaties?

    1. Issue

      Distinguishing features of the fair and equitable treatment standard

      Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET) Standard

      Generally, Turkey’s treaties grant investments FET standard (see the chart above). Both 2000 and 2009 Turkey Model BITs provide that the parties ‘shall at all times be accorded fair and equitable treatment’. Usually the Turkey’s treaties include the same wording as the Model BITs. A number of Turkey’s treaties (eg,Korea FTA, Singapore FTA and Colombia BIT) provide a definition of FET by stating what constitutes or does not constitute as FET.

      Treaties not including Fair and Equitable Treatment

      The treaties that do not include such provision are usually signed before 2011. Even though some of these BITs include that ‘fair and equitable treatment is desirable’ in the preamble section of the treaties (eg, Egypt Macedonia, Mongolia, Rwanda), they miss such treatment in the treaty scope.

      Minimum Standard of Treatment

      Certain BITs of Turkey (eg, Cameroon, Bangladesh (2019), Azerbaijan) link FET standard with the customary international law minimum standard of treatment of aliens.

  5. 5.

    Expropriation

    What are the distinguishing features of the protection against expropriation standard in this country’s investment treaties?

    1. Issue

      Distinguishing features of the ‘expropriation’ standard

      Scope of protection against expropriation

      Turkey’s BITs provide protection against expropriation. In almost all the BITs, this protection includes protection against expropriation, nationalization, direct and indirect measures having equivalent effect of nationalization or expropriation. Netherlands and Philippines BITs do not specifically state the wordings of ‘expropriation’ or ‘nationalization’ but refer to ‘any measure depriving, directly or indirectly an investor [...] of their investments’’. Exceptionally, UAE BIT states that the investments shall not be ‘frozen, blocked or sequestered’.

      Criteria for such protection

      Almost all of the Turkey’s BITs and the ECT provide that the investments can be expropriated for ‘public purposes’, in ‘a non-discriminatory manner’, ‘in accordance with due process of law’ and ‘in accordance with the general principles of treatment provided’ in Article relating to ‘Promotion and Protection of Investment’ as stated in both 2000 and 2009 Model BITs. Australia BIT narrows down the public purpose criteria by stating that it will be related to the ‘internal needs’ of the relevant Party.

      Compensation

      All Turkey’s treaties, subject to few exceptions and conditions, allow expropriation upon prompt, full, effective, adequate and/or just compensation. Some of Turkey’s treaties require that compensation be equivalent to either of genuine, true or market value or real market value, as the case may be, when the expropriation is made or when it is publicly known (eg, UK, Algeria, Bangladesh (2019)). In some of the treaties, it is stated that the compensation must be paid without delay and include interest (eg, Korea FTA).

      Valuation

      None of Turkey’s Model BITs foresee valuation of the compensation, they rather link the value to market value or real market value in majority of cases. Few of the BITs (eg, Australia, Oman and Rwanda) foresee details for the valuation.

      Interest

      Some of Turkey’s treaties (eg, Australia, Benin, France, Italy, Japan, the ECT) provide that compensation due to expropriation and/or nationalization, shall include interest.

      Review

      A number of Turkey’s BITs (eg, Austria, Chile, Denmark, Ghana, Philippines, Thailand) include the provision that the expropriation and the amount of expropriation can be subjected to review by the relevant authorities such as judicial, administrative, independent authorities. The ECT states that the affected investor shall have the right to ‘a prompt review, under the law [.…] by a judicial or other competent and independent authority’, and OIC Investment Agreement sets forth that ‘investor shall have the right to contest the measure of expropriation in the competent court of the host state’.

  6. 6.

    National treatment/most-favoured-nation treatment

    What are the distinguishing features of the national treatment/most-favoured-nation treatment standard in this country’s investment treaties?

    1. Issue

      Distinguishing features of the ‘national treatment’ and/or ‘most favoured nation’ standard

      Scope of national and most favoured nation (MFN) treatments

      Most of Turkey’s BITs include both of NT and MFN treatment standards. The Model BITs of Turkey dated 2000 and 2009 require investments to be permitted/admitted, in similar/like circumstances, no less favourable than investments of investors of a third country; and for the investments that are established, treatment no less favourable than investments of Turkey’s investors, in similar/like circumstances has been provided. However, some BITs also include limitation to such scope, which are mentioned below.

      Limitation to the standard

      There are some BITs only providing MFN treatment and national treatment protection to the investors, once the investment is established, as to the management, maintenance, use, enjoyment or disposal of their investments (eg, Mexico and Morocco).

      Some of Turkey’s treaties signed before 2011 include carve-outs from the MFN and/or national treatment standards mostly with regards to existing or future agreements regarding custom union, free trade, economic integration, bilateral tax treaties (eg, Morocco, Nigeria (1996), Oman, Romania). Some of the treaties signed after 2011 however extend the carve-outs to procedural issues such as dispute resolution clauses (eg, Mauritius, Rwanda, Nigeria (2011) and Pakistan (2012)). The ECT aberrantly regulates that the contracting parties endeavour to limit national treatment and MFN treatment exceptions to the minimum.

  7. 7.

    Protection and security

    What are the distinguishing features of the obligation to provide protection and security to qualifying investments in this country’s investment treaties?

    1. Issue

      Distinguishing features of the ‘protection and security’ standard

      Formulations of the standard

      A majority of Turkey’s BITs include protection and security standard (see the chart above). They generally use the standard wording of ‘full protection and security’, while some BITs diverge from the standard formula. For instance, Montenegro, Kuwait, Libya and Sweden BITs only provide ‘full protection’, Switzerland BIT only provides that the contracting parties will ‘protect’ the investments, Slovenia BIT only provides ‘full and constant protection’, while ECT provides the ‘most constant protection’. Serbia BIT (2003) exceptionally provides ‘legal protection’ only, and OIC Investment Agreement foresees the obligation to provide ‘adequate’ protection and security.

      Treaties not including protection and security standard

      The treaties that do not include such provision are usually signed before 2011. For example, Egypt, Jordan (2006), Macedonia BITs do not include provisions regarding the protection and security, for Jordan (2006) and Macedonia please see footnotes of 25 and 26 below.

      Limitations to the standard

      Turkey’s BITs generally provide protection and security without referring to specifics. Some BITs (eg, Tanzania, Ukraine (2017)) link the protection and security to customary international law minimum standard of treatment of aliens. There are certain other exemptions to this standard. As an example, the ECT provides that treatment shall not be ‘less favourable than that required by international law, including treaty obligations’, and BLEU BIT includes an exception in a manner that taking ‘measures required to maintain public order’ shall not constitute a breach of host state’s obligation to provide protection and security.

      A number of Turkey’s treaties (eg, Korea FTA, Singapore FTA and Colombia BIT) provide a definition of ‘full protection and security’.

  8. 8.

    Umbrella clause.

    What are the distinguishing features of the umbrella clauses contained within this country’s investment treaties?

    1. Issue

      Distinguishing features of any ‘umbrella clause’

      Formulations of the standard

      Turkey’s BITs rarely include umbrella clauses (eg, Denmark, Germany, US, Netherlands). None of the treaties signed after 2011 (mostly not in force yet) include an umbrella clause.

      The umbrella clauses present in Turkey’s BITs are generally formulated as ‘observance of any obligation or commitment that the contracting parties may have entered into with regards to investments of investors of the other contracting party’.

  9. 9.

    Other substantive protections.

    What are the other most important substantive rights provided to qualifying investors in this country?

    1. Issue

      Other substantive protections

      Non-impairment

      Most of Turkey’s treaties, including the ECT include a provision prohibiting contracting parties from impairing, by unreasonable or discriminatory measures, the management, maintenance, use, enjoyment or disposal of investments (eg, Ghana, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan). The wording of such provision varies but the general formulation of the provision is similar.

      State of emergency/conflict/civil unrest

      Most of Turkey’s BITs provide a right to compensation for investors in the event of emergency, conflict, civil unrest (eg, Australia, Bahrain, Cuba, Iran, Kuwait, Portugal). Such right for compensation is either provided under the provision of expropriation (eg, Bahrain, Cuba, Croatia) or a separate provision stipulated for compensation for losses (eg, Australia, Iran, Kuwait, Portugal). Almost in all of the treaties including such provision, the provision accords that the investor that suffers loss owing to such extraordinary situations shall be accorded with MFN treatment. Exceptionally, China (2015) and Denmark BITs provide that in addition to MFN treatment, the investors shall also be accorded to national treatment.

      Compensation for losses

      As stated in the above section, an obligation to compensate the losses born by the investor due to state of emergency/conflict or civil unrest are foreseen in some of Turkey’s treaties. Some of Turkey’s BITs (eg, Austria, Albania and Finland) only foresee compensation resulting from expropriation; majority of Turkey’s treaties rather foresee MFN treatment in case of losses incurred due to extraordinary circumstances.

      General exceptions and scope of application

      Some of Turkey’s treaties, mostly recent treaties signed after 2011 (mostly not in force) (eg, Azerbaijan, Finland, Israel) and the ECT include general exceptions to which the relevant treaty or certain provisions of treaty will not apply. These specific circumstances generally include measures relating to security interests, public order, human, animal and plant life, protection of environment and conservation of natural resources. In addition, some of the treaties (eg, Egypt, Kazakhstan and Thailand) provide that the treaty shall not apply to taxation measures.

      Few of Turkey’s treaties, mostly recent treaties signed after 2011, tend to exclude certain matters from the scope of application of the treaty, such as investments arising out of criminal activities, adopted measures with respect to the financial sector (eg, Colombia), ‘subsidies or grants provided by a Contracting Party or state enterprise of the Contracting Party including, government supported loans, guarantees and insurance’ (Zambia).

    Procedural rights in this country’s investment treaties

  10. 10.

    Are there any relevant issues related to procedural rights in this country’s investment treaties?

    1. Issue

      Procedural Rights

      Scope of disputes

      Scope of disputes in Turkey’s treaties are generally provided broadly. Turkey’s Model BITs of 2000 and 2009 (although there are certain carve-outs in the 2009 Model BIT, as explained below) refer to disputes between the investor and the host state in connection with investor’s investment. Most of Turkey’s BITs include the same or similar wordings. Treaties which do not follow the Model BITs’ wordings, also cover a broad range of disputes.

      Limitations on the scope

      Although the scope of disputes in Turkey’s treaties is generally provided broadly, some of Turkey’s BITs limit such a scope. Turkey’s Model BIT of 2009 provides that the disputes can be submitted to ICSID or other international dispute settlement mechanism provided that the dispute is (i) arising directly out of investments activities, (ii) which have obtained necessary permission, if any, (iii) in conformity with the relevant legislation of Turkey on foreign capital and that (iv) effectively started. Some treaties include all of these limitations (ie, limitations listed above as (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)) (eg, Azerbaijan, Colombia, Pakistan (2012)), while there are also other treaties including not all but a few of these criterias (eg, Uzbekistan (2017) Georgia (2016)). Some treaties include such limitation only for ICSID arbitration (eg, Moldova (2016)).

      Turkey’s Model BIT of 2009 also provides that disputes related to property or real rights upon real estates cannot be submitted to international dispute settlement mechanism or ICSID. This carve out generally included in treaties signed after 2011 (eg, Gabon, Pakistan (2012)).

      There are other limitations in Turkey’s certain BITs: Some of Turkey’s BITS, especially treaties executed after 2011, limit their application to disputes related to certain matters or provisions of the treaty (eg, Colombia, Poland BITs and Singapore FTA), or they simply define the disputes falling under the scope of the treaty (eg, Netherlands). A few of BITs regulate that if an investment in the form of acquisition of shares or voting power represents less than %10 of company, then disputes arising out thereof cannot be submitted to (international) arbitration (eg, Australia, Kenya, Cameroon). There are also a few other treaties requiring investment, inter alia, to be legally admitted (eg, Oman), while some other treaties require that the dispute is in connection with a treaty breach and that the investor has incurred loss or damages arising out there, in order for arbitration to be applicable to such dispute (eg, Colombia, Guatemala). Under Qatar BIT, only disputes arising directly out of an investment may be subjected to arbitration.

      In addition, although some of Turkey’s treaties provide that they are applicable to the investments made prior to or after the entry into force of the treaty, they also specifically provide that, the treaty will not be applicable to the disputes arose before the entry into force of the treaty (eg, Colombia, Cambodia).

      Limitations as to MFN standard

      Some of the BITs signed after 2011 specifically prohibit the right to import more favourable dispute resolution clauses from other treaties by using MFN treatment standards to dispute resolution clauses (eg, Mauritius, Ukraine (2017), Nigeria (2011)).

      ICSID arbitration

      Except for a few examples (eg, Russia, Iran and Cuba), almost all Turkey’s BITs (that are publicly available) allow ICSID arbitration. Some of them specifically mention that it will be available if both states are party to the Washington Convention (eg, Egypt and China (1994)).

      Ad-hoc arbitration

      Most of the treaties also allow investors to pursue an arbitration claim through UNCITRAL arbitration and/or any other arbitration institution or rules as is mutually agreed by the disputed parties (eg, Mexico, Ghana, Guatemala). Noticeably, Iran BIT and ECO Investment Agreement only refer to UNCITRAL rules. A few treaties limit application of UNCITRAL rules with disputes arising out of certain matters or provisions of the treaty (eg, Bulgaria and China (1994)).

      There are some other treaties referring to specific arbitration institutions, such as Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (eg, Russia BIT and the ECT), ICC (eg, Croatia, Jordan (2006) and Greece), ISTAC (eg, Ukraine (2017)), generally in addition to ICSID arbitration. A few of Turkey’s BITs (eg, Austria, Finland, UK) only refer to ICSID, while OIC Investment Agreement only refers to ad hoc arbitration without referring to any institutional arbitral rules.

      Host state’s consent to arbitrate

      A few of Turkey’s BITs expressly include host state’s consent to arbitrate (eg, Greece), while wording of a few others may be interpreted as the host state’s consent to arbitrate is to be sought before the initiation of arbitration (eg, Japan, Poland, Singapore FTA). Additionally, Turkey’s consent under the ECT is conditional regarding the disputes, previously submitted to dispute resolution mechanisms provided under the ECT.

      ICSID conciliation/additional facility

      Some of Turkey’s BITs refer to ICSID Additional Facility Rules (as an alternative to ICSID arbitration where both contracting parties are not party to the Washington Convention) or ICSID conciliation (eg, Finland, Israel, Sweden).

      Notice requirement

      Most of Turkey’s treaties include a general notice requirement to be issued before or for the initiation of amicable settlement procedure, while some others specifically require a notice of intent for arbitration (eg, Mexico and Colombia). Some of those treaties also specify what should be indicated in such notice (eg, Jordan (2016)).

      Problematic wording

      Some of Turkey’s treaties (eg, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan (1995), Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) include a problematic wording as to whether recourse to local courts is mandatory or optional. Accordingly, after regulating the right to resort to arbitration, they set forth ‘provided that, if the investor concerned has brought the dispute before the courts of justice of the Party that is a party to the dispute and a final award has not been rendered within one year’ or a similar wording. In Turkish versions of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan (1995), Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan BITs, it is formulated as if the recourse to local courts is mandatory, while in Turkish versions of some other treaties with the same or similar wording (eg, Netherlands), as if the recourse to local courts is optional.

      Recourse to local remedies

      Turkey’s BITs generally do not include mandatory recourse to local courts or other remedies before going to arbitration. They rather provide the investors with a right to choose between bringing the claim to local courts or investment arbitration. Some of Turkey’s BITs provide that arbitration may be initiated if the investor did not bring the dispute before local courts, and if did, award is not rendered within a certain period of time (eg, Finland, Sweden), or arbitration cannot be initiated during the term that the case is pending (eg, Iran BIT and ECO Investment Agreement, however, the latter also provides that the parties may agree otherwise). Iran BIT and ECO Investment Agreement further provide that in the event that a final judgment is rendered by host state’s courts, the investor cannot resort to arbitration. Spain BIT allows investor to withdraw its claim that was previously submitted to national court, and then submit it to arbitration. The wording of some BITs (eg, Denmark and Austria) also provide that, the investor may resort to arbitration provided that there has not been rendered a final award (if the investor concerned has brought the dispute before the host state’s courts). A few of Turkey’s treaties require the investor to submit the dispute to administrative review in accordance with applicable law if there is such a requirement in applicable law, for a specific period of time, as a condition for being entitled to submit the dispute to arbitration (eg, China (2015), Ghana, Colombia).

      Fork-in-the-road and no-U-turn (waiver) clauses

      Some of Turkey’s BITs, especially the recent ones signed after 2011, include fork-in-the-road provisions in a manner which the choice of forum will be final. Fork-in-the-road provision in some BITs adopt slightly different approach. Accordingly, they provide that if the dispute is resorted to the local courts, the investor cannot at the same time resort to arbitration (eg, Oman, Mexico). Singapore BIT provides that either party may refer the dispute to competent courts or arbitral tribunals as provided in the treaty, however investor’s choice of forum will prevail.

      Turkey’s BITs rarely envisage no-U-turn clauses, and if envisaged, they are generally together with fork-in-the-road provision (eg, Mexico, Guatemala, Georgia (2016)). There are a few exceptional treaties having no-U-turn clauses without fork-in-the-road provision (eg, Australia) as well.

      Cooling-off periods

      Almost all of Turkey’s treaties that are in force include a cooling-off period in a way that during which the amicable settlement will be sought, and such a period is generally is 6 months. Exceptions to this rule are limited: Only 12 treaties (see above chart) provide a 1-year or a 12 months cooling-off periods (please also see footnotes related with these exceptional cool-off periods, added to the above chart), while Israel, Chile and Slovenia BITs and the ECT prescribe it as a 3-month period. Libya BIT uncommonly prescribes a 90-days period. OIC Investment Agreement does provide a compulsory conciliation but does not prescribe a cooling-off period. Japan BIT does not prescribe a specific cooling-off period either.

      A few of Turkey’s BITs provide the cooling-off period without directly linking it to amicable settlement methods but rather as a period before which investor cannot submit the dispute to arbitration (eg, China (1994), Austria).

      Amicable settlement

      Almost all of Turkey’s treaties require for an amicable settlement method to be applied. The most common methods are negotiation and consultation; however, third party procedures are also mentioned in some BITs, time to time, as a procedure to follow if negotiations and/or consultations fail (eg, Austria, BLEU and China (1994)).

      Time limits

      Several BITs of Turkey require a claim to be commenced within a specified time, varying from 3 years to 6 years (eg, China (2015), Colombia, Georgia (2016)). Belarus BIT (2018) provides this limitation as if it is a condition to the host state’s consent to arbitrate.

      Special procedural rules

      Some of Turkey’s treaties provide special procedural rights within the treaty as to number, selection and eligibility criteria of arbitrators, consolidation procedure, admissibility and competence review procedures, distribution of costs. Mexico, Guatemala, Australia, Colombia BITs and Singapore FTA, as an example, regulate some or all of the above-mentioned matters.

      Restrictions on using diplomatic channels

      A number of Turkey’s treaties restrict pursuing matters related to disputes through diplomatic channels, except for certain circumstances (eg, Australia, Colombia, Portugal).

      Applicable law

      Some of Turkey’s treaties, especially the ones signed after 2011, (eg, Croatia, China (2015), Georgia (2016), Mexico) provide the applicable law which will be applied in case of a dispute. This provision stipulates which sources of law (eg, provisions of the treaty, national laws and regulations, principles of international law, special agreements relating to the investment) shall be taken into consideration in case of a settlement of a dispute. Exceptionally a few treaties also state which order shall taken into consideration when applying such sources of law (eg, Romania).

      Others

      Exceptionally, Colombia BIT specifically regulates that mediation and conciliation may be sought parallel to arbitration by the mutual agreement of the parties.

      A few of Turkey’s treaties restrict the right to apply treaty’s dispute resolution clause if the international arbitration has been sought for the same dispute (eg, Kuwait). A few others, on the other hand, limit the remedies to which arbitral tribunal can decide on with the award (eg, China (2015), Colombia and Mexico), while some others limit the host state claims (eg, Australia, Kuwait and Oman). A few others authorize arbitral tribunals to decide on certain types of reliefs (eg, Mexico, Ghana).

      A small number of BITs provide that the insurer can also benefit from the dispute resolution clause (eg, Bulgaria). A small number of others provide that although the legal person is located in the host state, if the majority shareholders of such a legal person are nationals or companies of the other contracting party, then this legal person may benefit from the dispute resolution clause (eg, Sweden, Finland).

  11. 11.

    What is the status of this country’s investment treaties?

    1. Starting from 2011, Turkey has been following the trend of new generation BITs. Turkey has a vast number of BITs which are signed but not yet in force. 15 of these treaties are signed with states with which Turkey already has a BIT in force (namely Bangladesh, Belarus, China, Georgia, Jordan, Tunisia, Nigeria, Sudan, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Moldova, Pakistan, Serbia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan).

      In such recent treaties, investment definitions are narrower. Treaty scope is limited with general exceptions such as human rights and environmental related measures. Umbrella clause is omitted. Although Turkey continue to provide investor-state dispute settlement provisions in the recent treaties, such treaties expand exceptions of MFN treatment to procedural issues such as dispute resolution clause.

      Turkey has recently signed several FTAs, however they are either not in force or their texts are not publicly available. There are also other FTAs which are currently under negotiation. Whether they include or will include an investment protection chapter is unknown.

    Practicalities of commencing an investment treaty claim against this country

  12. 12.

    To which governmental entity should notice of a dispute against this country under an investment treaty be sent? Is there a particular person or office to whom a dispute notice against this country should be addressed?

    1. Government entity to which claim notices are sent

      In case of a dispute against Turkey, initially the claim notices are sent to Presidency of Republic of Turkey. The Presidency direct the claim notices to the relevant Ministries.

  13. 13.

    Which government department or departments manage investment treaty arbitrations on behalf of this country?

    1. Government department which manages investment treaty arbitrations

      The government department that initially manages such investment treaty arbitrations is Presidency of Republic of Turkey. In practice, the Presidency authorizes and directs the investment treaty arbitrations to the relevant Ministries.

  14. 14.

    Are internal or external counsel used, or expected to be used, by the state in investment treaty arbitrations? If external counsel are used, does the state normally go through a formal public procurement process when hiring them?

    1. Internal/External Counsel

      Depending on the sector of the dispute, the relevant Ministries in Turkey use their internal counsels. However, in case of need, they resort to external counsel. Legal services to be procured by Turkish government or administrations for international arbitration proceedings are regulated under Public Procurement Law No. 4734. The relevant provision of the said law sets forth that these services can directly procured without a tender, from Turkish or foreign lawyers or attorney partnerships.

    Practicalities of enforcing an investment treaty claim against this country

  15. 15.

    Has the country signed and ratified the Washington Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (1965)? Please identify any legislation implementing the Washington Convention.

    1. Washington Convention implementing legislation

      The Washington Convention was entered into force for Turkey on 2 April 1989. Legislation implementing the Washington Convention is the Law numbered 3460 and dated 27 May 1988, and Council of Minister’s Decision numbered 88/13325 and dated 7 October 1988. Turkey has ratified the Washington Convention with a reservation limiting ICSID’s jurisdiction as to certain type of disputes, and a declaration regarding the settlement of disputes related to interpretation and application of the Washington Convention.

  16. 16.

    Has the country signed and ratified the United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958) (the New York Convention)? Please identify any legislation implementing the New York Convention.

    1. New York Convention implementing legislation

      The New York Convention (NYC) was entered into force for Turkey on 30 September 1992. Legislation implementing the NYC is the Law numbered 3731 and dated 8 May 1991, and Council of Minister’s Decision numbered 91/2151 and dated 15 August 1991. Turkey has ratified the NYC with two reservations. One of those reservations is a reciprocity reservation, and the other one is a commercial transactions reservation, according to which Turkey will apply the NYC only to the disputes of a commercial nature as per Turkish laws.

  17. 17.

    Does the country have legislation governing non-ICSID investment arbitrations seated within its territory?

    1. Legislation governing non-ICSID arbitrations

      Non-ICSID arbitrations seated in Turkey are subject to (a) International Arbitration Law No. 4686 (IAL), provided that the dispute bears the foreign element as defined under the said law, (b) Civil Procedure Law No. 6100 if the dispute does not bear foreign element as defined under the IAL.

  18. 18.

    Does the state have a history of voluntary compliance with adverse investment treaty awards; or have additional proceedings been necessary to enforce these against the state?

    1. Compliance with adverse awards

      To the best of our knowledge, Turkey has no history of non-compliance with adverse awards.

  19. 19.

    Describe the national government’s attitude towards investment treaty arbitration

    1. Attitude of government towards investment treaty arbitration

      Signing of its first BIT in 1962 and having over 120 BITs that are signed, all with investment treaty arbitration clauses, Turkey has created a wide web of BITs with an objective of encouraging foreign investments in Turkey. Turkey also executed several MITs and FTAs including investment protection clauses with such an aim. Turkey’s approach to the investment treaty claims is, so far, cooperative.

  20. 20.

    To what extent have local courts been supportive and respectful of investment treaty arbitration, including the enforcement of awards?

    1. Attitude of local courts towards investment treaty arbitration

      Turkey has promptly honoured the awards rendered in favour of the investors; therefore, to date no investment treaty awards have been sought to be enforced against Turkey in local courts to the best of our knowledge.

    National legislation protecting inward investments

  21. 21.

    Is there any national legislation that protects inward foreign investment enacted in this country? Describe the content.

    1. National legislation

      Substantive protections

      Procedural rights

      FET

      Expropriation

      Other

      Local courts

      Arbitration

      Foreign Direct Investment Law No. 4875 (FDIL)43

      No

      Yes – foreign direct investments cannot be expropriated or nationalized unless the public interest requires otherwise, and a consideration thereof is paid.

      Yes – right to employ foreign personnel and open liaison offices, right to transfer funds, freedom to invest, national treatment

      Yes

      Yes44

    National legislation protecting outgoing foreign investment

  22. 22.

    Does the country have an investment guarantee scheme or offer political risk insurance that protects local investors when investing abroad? If so, what are the qualifying criteria, substantive protections provided and the means by which an investor can invoke the protections?

    1. Relevant guarantee scheme

      Qualifying criteria, substantive protections provided and practical considerations

      Multilateral Investment

      Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

      Turkey is a member of MIGA. MIGA provides political risk insurances, against certain risks such as expropriation, damages due to war and civil disturbances, host countries’ breach of contract or failure to honour financial obligations etc., to investors from a member country for their qualifying investments in another member country.

      The Islamic Corporation for the Insurance of Investment and Export Credit (ICIEC)

      Turkey is one of the members of Islamic Development Bank and ICIEC, which provides foreign investors in member countries the investment insurances against country risks, mainly the risks of exchange transfer restrictions, expropriation, war and civil disturbance and breach of contract by the host government and eligibility criteria for investments that are not prohibited by Sharia. It also provides certain other insurances to export credit agencies and insurers, as well as banks and financial institutions.

    Awards

  23. 23.

    Please provide a list of any available arbitration awards or cases initiated involving this country’s investment treaties.

    1. Awards

      Alapli Elektrik B.V. v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/08/13, Award, July 16, 2012

      Aktau Petrol Ticaret A.S. v. Republic of Kazakhstan, ICSID Case No. ARB/15/8, Award, November 13, 2017

      Aktau Petrol Ticaret A.S. v. Republic of Kazakhstan, ICSID Case No. ARB/15/8, June 21, 2019 - The ad hoc Committee issues its decision on annulment

      ATA Construction, Industrial and Trading Company v. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, ICSID Case No. ARB/08/2- the ad-hoc committee issued a procedural order taking note of the discontinuance of the annulment proceeding, 2011

      Bayındır İnşaat Turizm Ticaret ve Sanayi A.Ş. v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/29, Decision on Jurisdiction, November 14, 2005

      Bayındır İnşaat Turizm Ticaret ve Sanayi A.Ş. v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/29, Award, August 27, 2009

      Baymina Enerji Anonim Şirketi v. Boru Hatları ile Petrol Taşıma Anonim Şirketi, ICSID Case No. ARB/14/35- decision on jurisdiction 2016

      Baymina Enerji Anonim Şirketi v. Boru Hatları ile Petrol Taşıma Anonim Şirketi, ICSID Case No. ARB/14/35, Award, March 18, 2019

      Barmek Holding A.S. v. Republic of Azerbaijan, ICSID Case No. ARB/06/16, Decision on Provisional Measures, August 29, 2007- settled

      Bozbey İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret and Ömer Faruk Bozbey v. Turkmenistan, UNCITRAL, Discontinuance, August, 16, 2013 – discontinued

      Cem Uzan v. Republic of Turkey, SCC Case No. 2014/023, Award on Respondent’s Bifurcated Preliminary Objection, April 20, 2016

      Cementownia ‘Nowa Huta’ S.A. v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/06/2, Award, September 17, 2009

      Cengiz İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş v. Libya, ICC Arbitration, Award, December 3, 2018

      Erbil Serter v. French Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/22, Award- discontinued

      Erhas and Others v. Turkmenistan, UNCITRAL, Award, June 8, 2015

      Europe Cement Investment and Trade S.A. v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/07/2

      Görkem İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret Limited Şirketi v. Turkmenistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/16/30 - discontinued

      İçkale İnşaat Limited Şirketi v. Turkmenistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/10/24, Award, 2016

      Libananco Holdings Co. Limited v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/06/8, Award, September 2, 2011

      Ömer Dede and Serdar Elhüseyni v. Romania, ICSID Case No. ARB/10/22, Award, September 5, 2013

      Karmer Marble Tourism Construction Industry and Commerce Limited Liability Company v. Georgia, ICSID Case No. ARB/08/19 - the Secretary-General issued a procedural order taking note of the discontinuance of the annulment proceeding, 2015

      Kılıç İnşaat İthalat İhracat Sanayi ve Ticaret Anonim Şirketi v. Turkmenistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/10/1-the ad hoc committee’s decision on annulment, 2015

      Mağdenli Yer Hizmetleri ve Taşıma Anonim Şirketi v. Kazakhstan, ICC Arbitration, Award, November 8, 2018

      Motorola Credit Corporation, Inc. v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/04/21 - settled

      PSEG Global Inc. and Konya Ilgın Elektrik Üretim ve Ticaret Limited Sirketi v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/02/5, Award, January 19, 2004

      Nabucco Gas Pipeline International GmbH in Liqu. v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/15/26 – discontinued

      PSEG Global Inc. and Konya Ilgın Elektrik Üretim ve Ticaret Limited Sirketi v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/02/5, Award, June 4, 2004- Decision on jurisdiction (attached to the Award), 2004

      Rumeli Telekom A.Ş. and Telsim Mobil Telekomünikasyon Hizmetleri A.Ş. v. Republic of Kazakhstan, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/16, Decision of the ad hoc Committee on the Stay of Enforcement, March 19, 2009

      Rumeli Telekom A.Ş. and Telsim Mobil Telekomünikasyon Hizmetleri A.Ş. v. Republic of Kazakhstan, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/16, Award, July 29, 2018, The ad hoc committee issued a Decision on the Application for Annulment

      Saba Fakes v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/07/20, Award, July 14, 2010

      Sistem Mühendislik İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. v. Kyrgyz Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/06/1, Decision on Jurisdiction, Sep 13, 2007

      Sistem Mühendislik İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. v. Kyrgyz Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/06/1, Award, September 9, 2009

      Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı v. Republic of Kazakhstan, ICSID Case No. ARB/11/2, Award (embodying the parties' settlement agreement), August 18, 2014

      Tulip Real Estate Investment and Development Netherlands B.V. v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/11/28, Award, March 10, 2014

      Turkcell İletişim Hizmetleri A.Ş. v. The Islamic Republic of Iran, UNCITRAL, Award, October 15,2014

      Cem Selçuk Ersoy v. Republic of Azerbaijan, ICSID Case No. ARB/18/6 - discontinued

      Etrak İnşaat Taahut ve Ticaret Anonim Sirketi v. Libya, ICC Arbitration

      Federal Elektrik Yatırım ve Ticaret A.Ş. and Others v. Republic of Uzbekistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/9 - decision on jurisdiction 2018

      Güriş İnşaat ve Mühendislik A.Ş. v. Libya, ICC Arbitration

      Güneş Tekstil Konfeksiyon Sanayi ve Ticaret Limited Şirketi and Others v. Republic of Uzbekistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/19, Award, October 2019

      Karkey Karadeniz Elektrik Üretim A.Ş. v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/1, Award, August 22, 2017 (revision proceedings continues)

      Lotus Holding Anonim Şirketi v. Turkmenistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/17/30, Award, April 6, 2020

      Pending Proceedings

      Attila Doğan Construction & Installation Co. Inc. v. Sultanate of Oman, ICSID Case No. ARB/16/7

      Bursel Tekstil Sanayi ve Dış Ticaret A.Ş., Burhan Enuştekin and Selim Kaptanoğlu v. Republic of Uzbekistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/17/24

      BM Mühendislik ve İnşaat A.Ş. v. United Arab Emirates, ICSID Case No. ARB/17/20

      Cascade Investments NV v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/18/4

      DSG v. Saudi Arabia DSG Yapı Sanayi Ticaret Anonim Ṣirketi v. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (ICSID Case No. ARB/19/32)

      Federal Elektrik Yatırım ve Ticaret A.Ş. and Others v. Republic of Uzbekistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/9

      Ipek Investment Limited v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/18/18

      Muhammet Çap & Sehil Inşaat Endustri ve Ticaret Ltd. Sti. v. Turkmenistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/12/6- decision on jurisdiction 2015

      Nurol İnşaat ve Ticaret A.Ş. v. Libya, ICC Arbitration

      SECE İnşaat ve Ticaret A.Ş. v. Turkmenistan ICSID Case No. ARB/18/34

      Tekfen, TML, Tekfen-TML Joint Venture v. Libya, ICC Arbitration

      Ustay Yapı Taahhüt ve Ticaret A.Ş. v. Libya, ICC Arbitration

      Westwater Resources, Inc. v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/18/46

    Reading List

  24. 24.

    Please provide a list of any articles or books that discuss this country’s investment treaties.

    1. Boden, D. (2010). Investment Arbitration and Sovereignty from a Turkish Law Perspective. Ankara Bar Review, 3(7). Retrieved from
      https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/ankar3÷=25&id=&page=.

      Demirkol, B. (2016). Interpretation of the dispute settlement clause in Turkish investment treaties with Turkic States, Arbitration International, Volume 32, Issue 1, 1 March 2016, Pages 29–43.

      Çal, S. (2009). Reciprocity and Provisional Application under the Energy Charter Treaty: Legal Aspects, European Energy Law Report VI (Eds. M. Roggenkapmp ve U. Hammer), Intersentia. Pages 189-226.

      Notes

      1 The information as to the entry into force given herein is based on the list published by the Ministry of Industry and Technology of Republic of Turkey, which is available at https://www.sanayi.gov.tr/assets/doc/anlasma-listesi.docx. The signing date of the BITs and MITs which have yet to enter into force, however, is based on the date stated as the signing date within the text of the relevant treaty, if the treaty is publicly available; otherwise, signing date given in the above-mentioned list is taken into account.

      2 If FET treatment is included in the preamble of a treaty, but not within its body, it is indicated as not including a FET clause.

      3 If the treaty in question specifically refers to a time period for amicable settlements, this period is considered as a cooling-off period. A few of the Turkey’s treaties provide solely a time period before starting arbitration (without referring to any amicable settlement period or method), or provide such a time period along with the time period for amicable settlement. In case of a BIT or MIT providing such a period along with the time period for amicable settlement, the time period for amicable settlement is referred in the list as cooling-off period. In case of having solely a time period to be exhausted before starting arbitration in a BIT or MIT, however, such time period is referred as cooling-off period for such BITs or MITs.

      4 The answer ‘yes’ indicates that the treaty in question grants the investors with the right to bring a dispute under the treaty before local courts. Please also note that Turkey’s treaties do not contain restrictions/prohibitions on access to the local courts of the host state. However, certain treaties do not explicitly list the right to bring a dispute before local courts as an option. Therefore, the answer ‘no’ indicates that the treaty in question does not explicitly list the right to bring a dispute under the treaty before local courts as an option for settlement of disputes between investors and the contracting state.

      5 Argentina BIT envisages a slightly different formulation of the standard by only providing legal protection and does not include other wording for “protection and security”.

      6 Austria BIT does not provide a specific cooling-off period for amicable dispute settlement, but a one year time period before starting arbitration as a cooling-off period.

      7 Bangladesh (1990) BIT does not provide a specific cooling-off period for amicable dispute settlement, but a one year time period before starting arbitration as a cooling-off period.

      8 Although Bangladesh (2019) BIT is not marked as in force in the list published by the Ministry of Industry and Technology of Republic of Turkey mentioned in footnote 1, Presidential Decision determining its entry into force date is published in the Official Gazette of Turkey dated 25 July 2019.

      9 Belarus (2018) BIT provides that it consents to arbitration but its consent is “conditional upon the submission of the dispute to... arbitration taking place within five years of the time at which the claimant became aware, or should reasonably have become aware, of a breach of an obligation under this Agreement causing loss or damage to the claimant or its investment”.

      10 BLEU BIT does not provide a specific cooling-off period for amicable dispute settlement, but a one year time period before starting arbitration as a cooling-off period.

      11 The review has been made from the French version, as the English version is not publicly available, although it provides that in case of divergence of interpretation the English version prevails.

      12 China (1994) BIT’s Article VII (dispute resolution) does not provide a specific cooling-off period for amicable dispute settlement, but a one year time period before starting ad-hoc arbitration as a cooling-off period. However, the clause also provides ICSID arbitration without referring to any cooling-off period.

      13 The review has been made from the Turkish version, as the English version is not publicly available, although it provides that in case of divergence of interpretation the English version prevails.

      14 This term may be extended by mutual agreement of parties as per Article 12 (3). It is also provided in Article 12(5) that after such term has elapsed, a notice of intent is to be submitted to the contracting party; only after 90 days lapse from the notice of intent, then the investor may resort to arbitration.

      15 Denmark BIT does not provide a specific cooling-off period for amicable dispute settlement, but a one year time period before starting arbitration as a cooling-off period.

      16 A Presidential Decision ratifying Djibouti BIT is published in the Official Gazette dated 5 March 2020; however, we could not confirm from the relevant governmental authorities whether or not it is ratified by Djibouti and/or entered into force.

      17 ECT provides that contracting parties listed in Annex ID choose not to give unconditional consent to international arbitration for disputes which have been previously submitted to a national court or tribunal or to a previously agreed procedure, and Turkey is one of the contracting parties listed Annex ID.

      18 The review has been made from the Turkish version, as the English version is not publicly available, although it provides that in case of divergence of interpretation the English version prevails.

      19 A Presidential Decision ratifying Ghana BIT is published in the Official Gazette dated 4 April 2020; however, we could not confirm from the relevant governmental authorities whether or not it is ratified by Ghana and/or entered into force.

      20 The review has been made from the Turkish version, although it provides that in case of divergence of interpretation the English version prevails, as the English version is not available.

      21 Although Guinea BIT is not marked as in force in the list published by the Ministry of Industry and Technology of Republic of Turkey mentioned in footnote 1, Presidential Decision determining its entry into force date is published in the Official Gazette of Turkey dated 31 December 2019.

      22 Iran BIT states a slightly different formulation of the standard by only providing fair treatment which excludes the equitable treatment.

      23 Although Article 11 of Japan BIT refers to ICSID arbitration, it states that ‘[…].Contracting Party shall consent to … arbitration at the request of such national or company in accordance with the provisions of the ICSID Convention[…]’. Therefore, we understand that consent condition for ICSID arbitration would not be met unless the contracting party consents upon request for arbitration of the investor.

      24 The preamble of Jordan (2006) BIT mentions ‘protection of investments’. As, it is not provided within the treaty’s body, it is indicated as not including the protection and security clause

      25 Korea BIT has been replaced by the investment chapter included in the Korean FTA; nevertheless, the relevant investment chapter provides that it “does not bind the parties in relation to any act or fact that took place or any situation that ceased to exist before the date of entry into force of [the Korea FTA]”.

      26 Different than many BITs of Turkey, Korea BIT provides that the investor may bring the dispute before ICSID “at any time after one year from the date upon which the dispute arose provided that the investor concerned has brought the dispute before the courts of justice of the Contracting Party that is a party to the dispute and there has not been rendered a final award”.

      27 The preamble of Macedonia BIT mentions ‘protection of investments’. As it is not provided within the treaty’s body, it is indicated as not including the protection and security clause.

      28 A Presidential Decision ratifying Mali BIT is published in the Official Gazette dated 4 April 2020; however, we could not confirm from the relevant governmental authorities whether or not it is ratified by Mali and/or entered into force.

      29 Mauritius BIT does not grant the investor the right to bring the dispute to the local court, it provides three forums for arbitration, and provides that in case of election of one of these forums, the choice is final.

      30 A Presidential Decision ratifying Montenegro BIT is published in the Official Gazette dated 5 March 2020; however, we could not confirm from the relevant governmental authorities whether or not it is ratified by Montenegro and/or entered into force.

      31 Netherlands BIT does not provide a specific cooling-off period for amicable dispute settlement, but a one year time period before starting arbitration as a cooling-off period.

      32 Although Article 8 of Poland BIT refers to ICSID and UNCITRAL arbitration, it states that the investor and the contracting party ‘shall agree to refer the dispute’ to arbitration. Therefore, we understand that consent condition for arbitration would not be met unless the contracting party consents upon request for arbitration of the investor.

      33 Singapore BIT has been replaced by Singapore FTA, however, as Singapore FTA provides that all investments made pursuant to Singapore BIT will be governed by Singapore BIT, and the investors may submit an arbitration claim under Singapore BIT regarding any matter arising while Singapore BIT is in force, provided that no more than three years have elapsed since the date of entry into force of Singapore FTA, we have also reviewed Singapore BIT.

      34 Sweden BIT does not provide a specific cooling-off period for amicable dispute settlement, but a six-months time period before starting arbitration as a cooling-off period.

      35 Tunisia (1994) BIT does not provide a specific cooling-off period for amicable dispute settlement, but a one year time period before starting arbitration as a cooling-off period.

      36 The review has been made from the Turkish version, as the English version is not publicly available, although it provides that in case of divergence of interpretation the English version prevails.

      37 We believe that the wording of ‘through the pursuit of local remedies or otherwise’ in Article 8/2 of UK BIT creates confusion whether it covers the local courts or not. In addition, the Turkish version of the BIT does not cover the wording ‘otherwise’.

      38 US BIT does not provide a specific cooling-off period for amicable dispute settlement, but a one year time period before starting arbitration as a cooling-off period.

      39 A Presidential Decision ratifying Uzbekistan (2017) BIT is published in the Official Gazette dated 2 April 2020; however, we could not confirm from the relevant governmental authorities whether or not it is ratified by Uzbekistan and/or entered into force.

      40 A Presidential Decision ratifying Zambia BIT is published in the Official Gazette dated 22 April 2020; however, we could not confirm whether or not it is ratified by Zambia and/or entered into force.

      41 Turkey currently has more than 20 FTAs in force, however, aside from the ones specified in this section as publicly available, they do not include an investment chapter. Additionally, there is no information as to whether not-in force FTAs (texts of which are not publicly available) include investment chapters.

      42 Singapore FTA provides the consent to arbitration as conditional upon certain actions of the claimant.

      43 FDI, while determining its scope of application envisages foreign investor and foreign direct investment definitions. Accordingly, foreign investor is defined as ‘(i) real persons who possess foreign nationality and Turkish nationals resident abroad, and (ii) foreign legal entities established under the laws of foreign countries and international institutions, who make foreign direct investment in Turkey’. Foreign direct investment, on the other hand, is defined as:

      1. ‘Establishing a new company or branch of a foreign company by foreign investor,
      2. Share acquisitions of a company established in Turkey (any percentage of shares acquired outside the stock exchange or 10 percent or more of the shares or voting power of a company acquired through the stock exchange) by means of, but not limited to the following economic assets:
        1. Assets acquired from abroad by the foreign investor:
          • Capital in cash in the form of convertible currency bought and sold by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey,
          • Stocks and bonds of foreign companies (excluding government bonds),
          • Machinery and equipment,
          • Industrial and intellectual property rights,
        2. Assets acquired from Turkey by foreign investor:
          • Reinvested earnings, revenues, financial claims, or any other investment-related rights of financial value, - Commercial rights for the exploration and extraction of natural resources.’

      In order for an investor or investment to benefit from FDI’s provisions, they should be falling under these definitions.

      44 FDI does not directly stipulate an arbitration clause but enables the foreign investor to have one in their contracts. It provides that, for the disputes arising out of investment agreements subject to private law or concession agreements signed by foreign investors (as defined in FDIL) with Turkish administrative authorities, subject to parties’ agreement and conditions set forth in the relevant legislation are fulfilled, arbitration may be resorted in addition to local courts.

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