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The European Arbitration Review 2017

Finland

The 105-year old Arbitration Institute of the Finland Chamber of Commerce (FAI),1 established in 1911, has a long and distinguished pedigree in arbitration. The FAI's current state-of-the-art Arbitration Rules were launched on 1 June 2013 (the FAI Arbitration Rules)2 following a substantial reformation process to bring the FAI Arbitration Rules in line with the best international arbitration norms and practices. More recently, on 1 June 2016, the FAI launched new Mediation Rules (the FAI Mediation Rules),3 which cater for a simple, cost-efficient, flexible and user-friendly mediation framework. Consequently, the FAI is a world-class arbitration centre that offers an attractive alternative for resolving complex international arbitration disputes. This chapter provides an introduction to the FAI Arbitration and Mediation Rules and the current arbitration landscape in Finland.

The 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules operate at the cutting edge of international arbitration practice

The FAI Arbitration Rules comprise a combination of the recent amendments to the 2012 ICC Rules, 2010 UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules and Swiss Rules of International Arbitration 2012. Accordingly, the FAI Arbitration Rules establish a comprehensive, expeditious and cost-efficient procedural framework for international and domestic arbitration, while respecting party autonomy and preserving the necessary flexibility to the proceedings.

The FAI Arbitration Rules impose a number of obligations on parties and tribunals that are designed to reduce time and costs of the proceedings. In line with the Swiss Rules, parties and tribunals have an overall good faith obligation ‘to make every effort to contribute to the efficient conduct of the proceedings in order to avoid unnecessary costs and delays'.4 The tribunal is further authorised to order cost sanctions on a party that fails to comply with this overall duty.

In the spirit of the overall duty to conduct the proceedings expeditiously and cost-efficiently, the FAI Arbitration Rules obligate tribunals to: arrange a preparatory conference at an early stage of the proceedings;5 establish a procedural timetable at the outset of the proceedings;6 and, as soon as possible after the last hearing date or the date on which the tribunal receives the last authorised written submission, declare the proceedings closed and inform the parties and the FAI of the date by which it expects to issue the final award.7 The arbitral tribunal is, however, obligated to render the final award within nine months from the receipt of the case file.8 The FAI may nevertheless extend this limit ‘upon a reasoned request of the arbitral tribunal'.9

The FAI Arbitration Rules also enable the tribunal to control the length of the proceedings in a number of ways, such as:

  • by setting cut-off dates for the presentation of new claims, arguments or evidence or the introduction of new witnesses;10 or
  • by ordering any party at any time to identify the documentary evidence that the party intends to rely on, specify the circumstances that the party intends to prove by such evidence and to produce any documents or other evidence that the tribunal may consider relevant to the outcome of the case.11

The FAI Arbitration Rules further provide for effective administration of multiparty and multi-contract arbitrations on even more liberal conditions than the ICC Rules12 and allow the parties access to the emergency arbitrator procedure prior to the appointment of the tribunal,13 as well as for arbitrator-oriented interim relief after the tribunal's appointment.14

Moreover, the FAI Arbitration Rules introduce an implied confidentiality obligation on the parties, the tribunal and the FAI,15 and provide for a number of other recently debated arbitration issues, such as the tribunal's use of a secretary,16 the taking of evidence17 and the challenge of arbitrators following the tribunal's participation in the parties' settlement negotiation.18

The FAI Arbitration Rules apply to FAI arbitrations commenced on or after 1 June 2013, with the exception of the emergency arbitrator procedure, the provisions for the joinder of additional parties, claims between multiple parties, and certain provisions concerning the appointment and revocation of arbitrators in the event of consolidation of the proceedings. Unless parties have agreed otherwise, these provisions only apply to arbitrations commenced under arbitration agreements concluded after 1 June 2013.19

The upward trend of arbitration in Finland

The FAI's launch of the current Rules in 2013 prompted a rapid increase in the number of arbitration cases filed with the FAI. The statistics of the FAI indicate that in 2013 the FAI had an all-time record of 80 requests for arbitration filed.20 While the number of requests in 2015 dropped to 52, the monetary value of cases increased significantly from previous years.21 The upward trend appears to be continuing in 2016: at the time of writing (August 2016), the FAI has had 42 requests for arbitration filed. In addition, 27 per cent of all FAI arbitration cases in 2015 had an international dimension (ie, at least one party is domiciled abroad).22

Along with the FAI Arbitration Rules, Finland's progressive and pro-­arbitration legislative framework contributes towards making Finland an attractive and arbitration-friendly seat. Both domestic and international arbitration proceedings in Finland are governed by the 1992 Arbitration Act, as amended (the Arbitration Act).23 The Arbitration Act largely mirrors the provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration (as amended in 2006). Finland has further ratified and enacted the 1958 New York Convention, and ratified the ICSID Convention.

The FAI drives gender diversity when appointing arbitrators

In conjunction with the reformation of the FAI Arbitration Rules, the FAI also considerably internationalised the composition of its Board by appointing a number of distinguished and prominent international arbitration practitioners from various jurisdictions. Consequently, the current FAI Board has considerable expertise in appointing high-quality arbitrators in domestic and cross-border disputes.

In the appointment of arbitrators, the FAI Arbitration Rules require the FAI Board to consider:

  • any qualifications required of the arbitrator by the agreement of the parties;
  • the nature and circumstances of the dispute;
  • the nationality of the parties and of the prospective arbitrator;
  • the language of the arbitration;
  • the seat of arbitration and the law or rules of law applicable to the substance of the dispute; and
  • any other relevant circumstances.24

Where the parties are of different nationalities, the FAI Arbitration Rules now confirm the FAI's established practice of not appointing a sole or a presiding arbitrator from the same domicile as one of the parties.25

In addition to ensuring that all arbitrators appointed in both domestic and international disputes have sufficient experience, expertise and other relevant qualifications to serve as an arbitrator in the specific case, the FAI Board has proclaimed to be ‘mindful of the importance of expanding the ‘pool of arbitrators' to include ‘younger arbitration practitioners who are known for their talent, efficiency and user-friendliness' and dedicated to promoting gender diversity.26

In fact, the statistics of the FAI show that, in 2015, 32 per cent of the arbitrators appointed by the FAI Board were female.27 This represents a considerable increase from 2014, when 20 per cent of the FAI appointed arbitrators were female. The number of appointed female arbitrators is set to increase in 2016: at the time of writing (August 2016), 32 per cent of all arbitrators appointed by the FAI Board, including arbitrators in ad hoc cases, have been female. By comparison, 25 per cent of all the arbitrators confirmed by the FAI in 2016 (including party-nominated arbitrators) have been women.

Finnish arbitration has traditionally been expeditious and cost-efficient

The first Arbitration Rules of the FAI, dated November 1910, already centred on such contemporary principles of arbitration as expeditious dispute resolution,28 impartiality of arbitrators29 and confidentiality of the proceedings.30 One of the key objectives of the 1993 Rules was to also enable an expeditious and economic arbitration process.

In fact, the FAI has a track record of promoting resolution of disputes expeditiously and in a cost-effective manner. Even before the launch of the current FAI Arbitration Rules, for several consecutive years, the average duration of a case resolved under the auspices of the FAI was less than a year.31 The statistics of the FAI show that the average duration of a case in 2015 was just eight months.32 In fact, the FAI Arbitration Rules require the tribunal to render its final award within nine months from the receipt of the case file from the FAI.33

The new FAI Mediation Rules strengthen the FAI's standing as an attractive arbitration centre

On 1 June 2016, the FAI launched new Mediation Rules, which apply to all FAI mediations commenced on or after that day, unless the parties agree otherwise.34 The launch of the FAI Mediation Rules will strengthen the FAI's standing as an attractive arbitration centre by extending the array of its services into the broader field of alternative dispute resolution and, thus, providing the disputing parties an opportunity to efficiently mediate their dispute before or during arbitration or litigation proceedings.

The FAI Mediation Rules enable parties to resort to FAI mediation on the basis of a written agreement of the parties to refer their dispute to mediation under the FAI Mediation Rules or ‘any other type of understanding between the parties to resort to FAI mediation.'35

In line with the ICC and many other well-known mediation rules, the FAI Mediation Rules further cater for the parallel conduct of mediation and arbitration or litigation to enable a mediation window to be included in parallel arbitration proceedings.36 The FAI Mediation Rules provide that ‘[u]nless otherwise agreed by the parties, an agreement on FAI mediation does not constitute a bar to any judicial, arbitral or similar proceedings'37 and ‘[s]ubject to applicable laws, orders, regulations and rules of the competent judicial authorities, arbitral tribunals, arbitral institutions or similar authorities, the parties may agree to stay any judicial, arbitral or similar proceedings' for the purposes of initiating FAI mediation.38

The FAI Mediation Rules provide only a light regulatory framework for the mediation process offering the parties and the mediator great flexibility in tailoring the mediation process to suit each particular case. Accordingly, the FAI Mediation Rules permit the parties to deviate from the FAI Mediation Rules in their agreement to mediate.39 The FAI may nevertheless decline to administer the mediation if it considers that the parties' deviations are not compatible with the characteristics of the FAI mediation and the FAI Mediation Rules.40

The parties are particularly given the freedom to agree on the language and place of mediation, any number of mediators, jointly nominate the mediator(s) for the FAI's confirmation within 15 days from the date of filing the request for mediation41 and, subject to the approval of the mediator, the manner of conducting the arbitration.42 Furthermore, both parties are, at any time, able to request the termination of the mediation, provided that such request is made in writing.43 The FAI Mediation Rules nevertheless provide default provisions for the setting of the language and place of mediation meetings, the number of mediators as well as the procedure for the appointment of the mediator.44

All parties' nominations of mediators are subject to confirmation by the FAI.45 However, the FAI will only decline to confirm the nomination if the prospective mediator fails to fulfil the requirements of impartiality and independence of article 6.1, or the nominated mediator is otherwise unsuitable to serve as mediator.46 The FAI Mediation Rules require a mediator to fulfil similar independence and impartiality requirements as the FAI Arbitration Rules and accordingly submit a statement of acceptance, availability, impartiality and independence.47

In the spirit of the FAI Arbitration Rules, the mediator is also obligated to conduct the mediation ‘expediently and in such manner as he or she considers appropriate, having regard to the preferences of the parties.'48 All participants in FAI mediation are additionally obligated to ‘act in good faith' and make ‘sincere efforts to reach an amicable settlement in the matter.'49

The FAI Mediation Rules further set out an express confidentiality obligation on the parties and the mediator, unless the parties have agreed otherwise or the applicable law provides otherwise.50

Upon successful settlement of the parties' dispute, the parties may, under article 12, subject to the consent of the mediator, agree to appoint the mediator to act as an arbitrator and request the arbitrator to confirm the settlement agreement in an arbitral award in accordance with section 44.2 of the FAI Arbitration Rules.51

The FAI Board's recorded decisions illustrate that the FAI Arbitration Rules work well in practice

Since the launch of the current FAI Arbitration Rules in 2013, the FAI has published several decisions of the FAI Board primarily relating to the consolidation of arbitrations and the FAI Board's jurisdiction to administer a case under the FAI Arbitration Rules, particularly in the context of multi-contract and multiparty arbitrations.52 These published decisions provide a useful guidance on the practical application of the FAI Arbitration Rules and illustrate that the FAI Arbitration Rules work well in practice. Some of the most noteworthy, published decisions of the FAI Board are summarised below.

The FAI Board's first decision on the consolidation of arbitrations under article 13 of the FAI Rules

Article 13 of the FAI Rules provides for consolidation of closely connected arbitrations on conditions that resemble those of article 10 of the ICC Rules.53 However, in contrast with the ICC Rules, article 13 of the FAI Rules allows the consolidation of arbitrations irrespective of whether the arbitrations are between the same or different parties. Article 13, thus, caters for a relatively flexible consolidation regime.

Article 13 entitles a party that is involved in multiple arbitrations to request the FAI Board to have the arbitrations consolidated into a single arbitration if:

  • all the parties agree;
  • the claims are made under the same arbitration agreement; or
  • the claims are made under different agreements but in connection with ‘the same legal relationship' and the agreements do not contain ‘contradictory provisions that would render the consolidation impossible'.54

The FAI Board has sole discretion to decide on the consolidation of arbitration proceedings. The FAI Rules nevertheless oblige the FAI Board to take into account:

  • the identity of the parties;
  • the connections between the claims made in the different arbitrations; and
  • whether the arbitrators have been confirmed or appointed in any of the arbitrations, and if so, whether the same or different persons have been confirmed or appointed.55

Where the Board accepts the request for joinder or consolidation, ‘all parties will be deemed to have waived their right to nominate an arbitrator,' and the Board has the power to revoke the confirmation or appointment of arbitrators and proceed to appoint the tribunal in accordance with article 19.56

In the reported FAI Board's decision concerning the consolidation of closely connected arbitrations, the FAI Board appears to have adopted rather cautious approach in its application of article 13.57 Party A had simultaneously commenced two separate FAI arbitration proceedings: (i) arbitration case No. 1 against B (a limited liability company) and C (a natural person and the sole owner and manager of Company B), arising from a shareholders' agreement between A, B and C concerning the ownership and governance of Company D (Arbitration Case 1); and (ii) arbitration case No. 2 against B arising from a share purchase agreement concerning the sale and transfer by A of its shares in Company D to B (Arbitration Case 2).

In Arbitration Case 1, A claimed damages from B and C for a breach of the shareholders' agreement on the basis that B and C had failed to inform A of certain circumstances that would have materially affected A's judgment in setting the sale price for its shares in Company D. In Arbitration Case 2, A claimed damages from B for a breach of the share purchase agreement on similar basis. A further requested the FAI Board to consolidate the two arbitration proceedings. B and C objected to A's request.

The FAI Board dismissed A's request for consolidation on the basis that:

  • B and C had opposed A's request for reasons that could not be regarded as obstructive or dilatory;
  • the parties to the different arbitrations were different, albeit closely related;
  • Arbitration Case 1 and Arbitration Case 2 were based on different arbitration clauses, which were not fully compatible, particularly with regard to the language requirements; and
  • A, B and C had all informed the FAI that, in the event that these cases were not consolidated, they agreed to have the same arbitral tribunal in both arbitration cases.

The latter ground was the most decisive factor in the FAI Board's reasoning, as the FAI Board considered that ‘most of the benefits of consolidation could effectively be achieved without any need to actually consolidate the proceedings.'58

The FAI Board has advised that:

the Board is likely to accept a request for consolidation mainly in cases where the arbitrations are pending between the same parties and they are based on the same arbitration agreement. Conversely, unless all parties expressly agree to consolidation, it may be anticipated that arbitrations will rarely be consolidated if the parties are different and the proceedings are based on different arbitration agreements. Consolidation is also unlikely if different arbitrators have already been confirmed in the different arbitrations, absent special reasons to the contrary.59

The FAI Board's reported decisions on the determination of jurisdiction under article 14 of the FAI Rules

Since the launch of the FAI Rules in 2013, the FAI Board has rendered a number of jurisdictional decisions both in relation to claims presented in single arbitration as well as in multiparty and multi-contract arbitrations. In relation to the FAI Board's jurisdiction in the case of multi-contract arbitrations under article 14.2 of the FAI Rules, the FAI Board has remarked that:

the closer (i) the substantive relatedness between the different contracts containing the different arbitration agreements, and (ii) the connectivity between the different claims based on the different contracts and arbitration clauses, the higher the likelihood that the Board will find that the prima facie test under Article 14.2(b) is satisfied.60

Article 14 determines the conditions for the FAI Board's jurisdiction to administer a case under the FAI Rules. The wording of article 14 largely mirrors that of article 6(4) of the ICC Rules. Article 14.1 applies where claims are brought in a single arbitration under one arbitration agreement. In such case, the Board must be ‘prima facie satisfied that an arbitration agreement under the Rules that binds the parties may exist'.61

Conversely, article 14.2 determines the FAI Board's jurisdiction to administer a case under the FAI Rules, where claims are made under multiple contracts or different arbitration agreements. In such cases, the FAI Board must be prima facie satisfied that:

a)  the arbitration agreements under which those claims are made do not contain contradictory provisions; and

b)  all the parties to the arbitration may have agreed that those claims can be determined together in a single arbitration.62

The FAI Rules nevertheless preserve the arbitral tribunal's Kompetenz-Kompetenz to decide on its own jurisdiction by providing that the Board's decision to allow the arbitration to proceed under article 14 is not binding on the arbitral tribunal.63 However, if the Board rejects the request for joinder, the applicant's only remedy is to request a domestic court to rule on the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal.

One of the reported FAI Board's jurisdictional decisions concerned a dispute between a Finnish company A (the claimant) and an Indian company B and a guarantor of B's loan, company C (together, the respondents) arising from a loan agreement between A and B (the loan agreement).64 The loan agreement between A and B contained a FAI arbitration clause, whereas the first demand guarantee issued by C as a security of B's obligations under the loan agreement (the guarantee) designated the jurisdiction over the guarantee to the Finnish courts.

However, the third amendment to the loan agreement (the amendment agreement) provided that the arbitration agreement contained in the loan agreement also applied to the amendment agreement. The amendment agreement further contained a signed undertaking from company C to guarantee the loan amount specified in the amendment to the loan agreement.

Following B's failure to repay its loan under the loan agreement, the claimant initiated FAI arbitration against B and C. The respondents raised a jurisdictional plea on the basis that certain other agreements concluded in connection with the loan agreement were governed by Indian substantive law and conferred jurisdiction to the courts of Chennai, the various amendments to the loan agreement had rendered it void, thus preventing the claimant from invoking the arbitration clause in the loan agreement, and that the second respondent, company C was not a signatory to the arbitration agreement contained in the loan agreement.

The FAI Board was prima facie satisfied that a valid and binding FAI arbitration agreement between A, B and C may exist and, thus, allowed the arbitration to proceed against both respondents pursuant to article 14 of the FAI Arbitration Rules. The sole arbitrator appointed by the FAI Board decided the jurisdictional plea as a preliminary matter and issued a separate procedural ruling finding that the sole arbitrator had jurisdiction to adjudicate all claims raised against both respondents and dismissing the respondents' jurisdictional objection. The sole arbitrator reasoned that both respondents were bound by the arbitration agreement on the basis that the loan agreement and the guarantee were closely related agreements, the claimant's claims against both respondents were also closely related and it was evident that by signing the amendment agreement the second respondents, company C had become involved in the execution of the loan agreement on a de facto basis and was, thus, deemed to have consented to be bound by the arbitration agreement in the loan agreement.

Notes

  1. http://arbitration.fi.
  2. 2013 Arbitration Rules of the Finland Chamber of Commerce (2013 FAI Arbitration Rules), available at http://arbitration.fi/rules_eng.
  3. 2016 Mediation Rules of the Finland Chamber of Commerce (2016 FAI Mediation Rules), available at http://arbitration.fi/mediation/mediation_rules/.
  4. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 25.3.
  5. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 29.1.
  6. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 30.1.
  7. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 39.1.
  8. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 42.
  9. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 42.
  10. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 33.3.
  11. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 33.2.
  12. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at articles 10-14.
  13. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 36.5 and Appendix III.
  14. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 36.
  15. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 49.
  16. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 25.5.
  17. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 33.
  18. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 25.6.
  19. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 52.1.
  20. http://arbitration.fi/the-arbitration-institute/statistics.
  21. FAI commentary on 2014 statistics, available at http://arbitration.fi/2015/03/13/fai-statistics-2014.
  22. http://arbitration.fi/the-arbitration-institute/statistics.
  23. Arbitration Act 967/1992, available in English (unofficial translation) at www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/1992/en19920967.pdf.
  24. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 21.5.
  25. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 21.6.
  26. FAI commentary on 2014 statistics, available at http://arbitration.fi/2015/03/13/fai-statistics-2014.
  27. FAI commentary on 2014 statistics, available at http://arbitration.fi/2015/03/13/fai-statistics-2014.
  28. First Arbitral Rules of the FAI dated 1910, at section 11.
  29. First Arbitral Rules of the FAI dated 1910, at section 10.
  30. First Arbitral Rules of the FAI dated 1910, at section 16.
  31. http://arbitration.fi/en/statistics. The 1993 Rules already provided for a rather ambitious time limit of 12 months for the rendering of the final award (1993 FAI Arbitration Rules, at section 38).
  32. http://arbitration.fi/en/statistics.
  33. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 42. The FAI may nevertheless extend the arbitral tribunal's nine-month time limit for the rendering of the final award upon a reasoned request of the arbitral tribunal.
  34. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, available at http://arbitration.fi/mediation/mediation_rules/.
  35. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 2.2.
  36. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 11.
  37. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 11.1.
  38. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 11.2.
  39. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 1.1.
  40. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 9.
  41. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 5.
  42. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 8.
  43. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 10.
  44. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at articles 5, 8 and 9.
  45. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 5.6.
  46. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 5.7.
  47. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 6.
  48. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 8.1.
  49. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 8.5.
  50. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 15.
  51. 2016 FAI Mediation Rules, at article 12.1.
  52. The reported decisions of the FAI Board, available at http://arbitration.fi/category/fai-cases.
  53. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 13.
  54. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 13.
  55. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 13.1.
  56. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 13.2.
  57. FAI Board's First Ruling on the Consolidation of Arbitrations under Article 13, published on 4 May 2015, available at http://arbitration.fi/
  58. 2015/05/04/fai-boards-first-ruling-on-the-consolidation-of-arbitrations-under-article-13.
  59. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 13.4.
  60. FAI Board's First Ruling on the Consolidation of Arbitrations under Article 13, published on 4 May 2015, available at http://arbitration.fi/
  61. 2015/05/04/fai-boards-first-ruling-on-the-consolidation-of-arbitrations-under-article-13.
  62. FAI Board's Negative Jurisdictional Decision under article 14.2 Refusing to Allow the Counterclaim to Proceed in the Arbitration, published on 2 March 2015, available at http://arbitration.fi/2015/
  63. 03/02/fai-boards-negative-jurisdictional-decision-article-14-2-refusing-allow-counterclaim-proceed-arbitration.
  64. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 14.1.
  65. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 14.2.
  66. 2013 FAI Arbitration Rules, at article 14.2.
  67. FAI Reported Cases: Sole Arbitrator's jurisdictional decision finding that an arbitration clause contained in a loan agreement was valid and binding on both the lendee and the guarantor, published on 30 May 2016, available at http://arbitration.fi/2016/05/30/sole-arbitrators-jurisdictional-decision-finding-arbitration-clause-contained-loan-agreement-valid-binding-lendee-guarantor/.

Dittmar & Indrenius
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FI-00100 Helsinki
Finland
Tel: +358 9 681 700
Fax: +358 9 652 406

Jussi Lehtinen
jussi.lehtinen@dittmar.fi

Heidi Yildiz
heidi.yildiz@dittmar.fi

www.dittmar.fi

Dittmar & Indrenius renders insightful and comprehensive advice to demanding corporate clients. The firm focuses on creating exceptional added value. The firm's ambition is to be the best law firm partner for its clients.

The firm represents leading international companies and institutions within banking, finance, private equity, venture capital, insurance, information technology, telecommunications, manufacturing, automobiles, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods and services, aviation, consultancy, construction, energy, entertainment and media. The firm also acts for a number of governments and international organisations.

The firm's dispute resolution practice represents clients in all types of commercial disputes ranging from litigation related to the ordinary course of a client's business to complex arbitration proceedings and alternative dispute resolution.

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